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前端框架Benchmark 2019:Vue表现怎么样?


小型全栈式 App RealWorld Conduit 最近更新了其基准测试结果。这款 App 分别采用 18 个不同的前端框架构建,并对它们进行了比较。结果显示,18 个框架当中有 13 个获得了顶级的 LightHouse 的分数(也就是在总分 100 分的情况下获得 90 以上)。在这 18 个框架当中,Svelte、Stencil、AppRun、Dojo、HyperApp 和 Elm 的网络传输负载最低(低于 30KB)。


自称为”演示 App 之母“的 Conduit 是对 Medium.com 的全栈式克隆,采用了一组 API 规范,并带有具备真实世界复杂性的功能。RealWorld 项目核心维护者 Eric Simons 解释说:


它就像是 TodoMVC,只是使用全栈技术实现。RealWorld 向大家展示了如何使用 React/Angular 等框架在 Node/Django 等平台上构建真实的博客平台。开发者可以把它们混合起来,因为它们都遵循相同的 API 规范。


RealWorld 基准测试始于 2017 年,最近更新了针对使用 18 个不同前端框架实现的 Conduit 的评估结果。2019 年的基准测试排名主要关注这三个方面:性能、大小和代码量。


性能分数是通过 LightHouse 来评估的。LightHouse 是一个非常流行的用于改进 Web 质量的自动化工具。LightHouse 对性能、可访问性和渐进式 Web App 进行审计,并基于六个加权指标给出性能评估分数。这六个指标按照重要程度排序如下:


TTI(Time to Interactive):让一个页面变得可交互需要多长时间。


速度指数(Speed Index):页面处理内容的速度,分数越低也好。


FCP(First Contentful Paint):从导航一个页面到浏览器开始渲染 DOM 第一个字节的时间。


FCI(First CPU Idle):页面达到最小化可交互的时间(不需要等到页面上的所有元素都可交互,只要可以对大部分用户输入做出响应即可)。


FMP(First Meaningful Paint):用户感知到页面主要内容可见的时间。


预估的输入延迟(Estimated Input Latency)。


LightHouse 将性能分数分为三组。90 到 100 分为顶级,表示性能最好的网站。在 RealWorld 基准测试中,大部分(18 个中有 13 个)Conduit 实现属于这一组。前 13 个框架中包括已经很成熟的框架(如 Elm、Dojo、Vue、Angular、Aurelia、Stencil、Svelte 和 React)、简约型框架(如 AppRun、Hyperapp)、较少被使用的框架(如 Crizmas 或 reframe)以及可编译成 JavaScript 的框架 Imba。



前端框架性能表现,分数越高越好,Vue排第6位。


这 18 种 Conduit 实现也根据大小进行了排名。基准测试作者详细介绍了这一标准背后的原理及其计算方法:


传输大小是从 Chrome 开发者工具的 Network 页面获得的,包括 GZip 压缩的响应头和响应体……文件越小下载就越快,需要解析的东西就越少。


在性能最好的 13 个框架中,有 6 个(Svelte、Stencil、AppRun、Dojo、HyperApp 和 Elm)的传输大小小于 30KB,Vue为41.8K,排第7位:



他们通过 k-means 聚类算法将 18 个框架的传输大小分为 5 类。


框架的特点可以用来解释为什么它们的传输大小可以达到这么小:


Svelte 自称为”神奇的即逝 UI 框架“,将 API 编译成最优化的 JavaScript。


Stencil 的运行时只有 6KB,并可以编译成 Web 组件。


AppRun 和 HyperApp 的体积非常小(分别为 3KB 和 1KB)。


Dojo 最近推出了自动代码拆分特性,并针对 PRPL 性能模式进行了优化。


Elm 0.19 针对资产文件进行了优化。


前端框架的繁荣促成了基准测试的流行,这些基准测试旨在通过各种有意义的方式对框架进行比较。基准测试涉及的框架可能是各种各样的,具体取决于要比较哪些方面的内容、基准测试的方法和相关性以及分数的算法。但是,在选择前端框架时,还是要进行全盘考虑,包括质量和数量方面的指标。


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